Sejarah Indonesia

1500 to 1670: Great Kings and Trade Empires


Palembang converts to Islam.  



Trenggono, grandson of Raden Patah, becomes prince of Demak.

Local powers on Java around 1500 included:

Demak which was the chief power in Java in the early 1500s. Nearby Jepara participated in many naval expeditions.

Surabaya. Some powers that later came under Surabaya include Gresik, home of Sunan Giri, and Pasuruan.

Banten, which was a Hindu power under Pajajaran until the arrival of Sunan Gunungjati.



Portuguese visit Melaka for the first time.

The goal of the Portuguese was to take control of trade. Later trade empires would include Gowa, Banten, and the Dutch VOC or East India Company. The original goal of all of them was money before political power, but they did not always stick to their original goal.



April Portuguese Admiral Albuquerque sets sail from Goa to Melaka.

August 10 Albuquerque's forces take Melaka.

Sultan of Melaka escapes to Riau.

Portuguese in Melaka destroy a "Javanese" fleet. Their ship sinks with treasure on way back to Goa.

December Albuquerque sends three ships under da Breu from Melaka to explore eastwards.

The gate to the Portuguese fortress at Melaka. Melaka was the center of the Portuguese trade empire in the Indies in the 1500s. The Portuguese in Melaka were attacked every few years by the Sultans of Malaya and Sumatra, especially Aceh and Johore. Sometimes alliances would be formed with powers on Java to attack the Portuguese.



Da Breu expedition travels from Melaka to Madura, Bali, Lombok, Aru and Banda. Two ships are wrecked at Banda. Da Breu returns to Melaka; Francisco Serrão repairs ship and continues to Ambon, Ternate, and Tidore. Serrão offers support to Ternate in a dispute with Tidore--his men build a Portuguese post at Ternate.

Serrão wrote to Magellan at this time (who formerly served under Albuquerque, but pledged allegiance to Spain after being refused a promotion) telling Magellan about the riches of the Indies.



A force from Jepara and Palembang attacks the Portuguese in Melaka, but is repulsed.

March Portuguese send an envoy to King of Pajajaran. Portuguese are allowed to build a fort at Sunda Kelapa (now Jakarta).

Portuguese make contact with King Udara, son of Girindrawardhana and ruler over the remnant of Majapahit.

Portuguese build factories at Ternate and Bacan.

Udara attacks Demak with the help of the King of Klungkung on Bali. Majapahit forces are driven back, but Sunan Ngudung falls in battle. Many more supporters of Majapahit flee to Bali.

Powers on Sumatra included:

Aceh, the first major Islamic power in what is now Indonesia. It was founded by local rulers of Lamuri, around today's Banda Aceh, after they were expelled from Pedir (around today's Sigli). After the fall of Melaka to the Portuguese, many Muslim merchants moved their business operations to Aceh, and this caused Aceh to grow as a trading power.

Palembang where sultans still ruled long after the fall of Srivijaya.

On Kalimantan, Sukadana was a thriving city founded by refugees from the fall of Majapahit.


Ali Mughayat Syah is first Sultan of Aceh. On Bali the King of Gelgel (near today's Klungkung) was the most powerful king in the 1500s.



First Portuguese visit Timor.




Sultan Mahmud of Melaka takes power at Johore.

Raden Patah passes away; Yunus becomes Sultan of Demak.

The Sultanate of Johore was attacked by the Portuguese all through the 1520s.



Aceh begins taking northeast coast of Sumatra.

Balinese attack on Lombok.

Portuguese traders begin visiting Flores and Solor.

Banjar on Kalimantan converts to Islam.




Yunus leads fleet from Demak and Cirebon against the Portuguese in Melaka. Yunus is killed in battle. Trenggono becomes Sultan of Demak.

Portuguese take Pasai in Sumatra; Gunungjati leaves Pasai for Mecca.

Last ship of Magellan expedition around the world sails between Lembata and Pantar islands in Nusa Tenggara.

Sultan Trenggono is remembered as a ruler who did much to spread Islam throughout East and Central Java.



February Portuguese expedition under De Brito arrives on Banda.

May De Brito expedition arrives at Ternate, builds a Portuguese fort.

Banten, still Hindu, asks for Portuguese help against Muslim Demak.

Survivors of Magellan's expedition around the world visit Timor.

Portuguese build fort at Hitu on Ambon.

Only 18 men survived Magellan's expedition, but they returned to Spain with about a ton of cloves, enough to make them wealthy for life.

The arrival of Spanish ships was worrisome to the Portuguese, however, who now had to deal with a European competitor in the heart of the Spice Islands.


Gunungjati returns from Mecca and settles at Demak, marries sister of Sultan Trenggono.  



Gunungjati and son Hasanuddin do both covert and overt missionary work in West Java to weaken the kingdom of Pajajaran and its alliance with the Portuguese. Local ruler of Banten, formerly dependent on Pajajaran, converts to Islam and joins Demak's side.

Aceh takes Pasai and Pedir in northern Sumatra.

About this time much of Java began to convert to Islam, including Banten, Mataram and Central Java, and Surabaya.



Hasanuddin, son of Gunungjati, does missionary work in Lampung.



Portuguese build first fort on Timor.  



Demak conquers Kediri, Hindu remnant of Majapahit state; Sultans of Demak claims to be successors to Majapahit claims; Sunan Kudus takes part.

Demark takes Tuban.

Demak, with help from Banten, takes Sunda Kelapa from Pajajaran; renames it Jayakerta. (Credit is given to a "Fatahillah"--or after the Portuguese mispronounciation, "Falatehan"-- but this might be a name given to Sunan Gunungjati.) Pajajaran Kingdom is pushed away from the sea.

Kingdom of Palakaran on Madura, based at Arosbaya (now Bangkalan), converts to Islam under Kyai Pratanu.

Expeditions from Spain and Mexico try to drive the Portuguese from Maluku.

Masjid at Kudus, from the early 1500s.

Among the notable figures of this period are the Wali Songo or Nine Walis.

See also Notes on Islam in Modern Indonesia.



Demak conquers Madiun.

Kings of Spain and Portugal agree that Maluku should belong to Portugal, and the Philippines should belong to Spain.

Spain and Portugal had divided the entire world between themselves in 1494. They continued to argue for years over the exact position of the dividing circle. A 1524 conference sponsored by the Pope did not settle matters.



Salahuddin is Sultan of Aceh.

Surabaya and Pasuruan submit to Demak. Demak takes Balambangan, the last Hindu state in easternmost Java.

Gowa begins expanding from Makassar.

Banten extends influence over Lampung.




Major Portuguese attack on Johore.

Antonio da Galvão becomes governor of Portuguese post at Ternate; founds Portuguese post at Ambon.

Portuguese take Sultan Tabariji of Ternate to Goa due to suspicions of anti-Portuguese activity, replace him with his brother.




Acehnese attack on Melaka fails. Salahuddin of Aceh is replaced by Alaudin Riayat Syah I.




Aceh attacks the Bataks to their south.




Portuguese in contact with Gowa.

Sultanate of Butung founded.



Demak conquers Malang.

Gowa builds fort at Ujung Pandang.




Demak invades Balambangan without success.

Trenggono of Demak dies and is succeeded by Prawata. His son-in-law Joko Tingkir expands power from Pajang (near present Sukoharjo).

St. Francis Xavier travels to Morotai, Ambon, and Ternate.

Catholicism (Katolik), one of Indonesia's five religions.

Around this time Portuguese missionaries began to spread the Catholic religion in Indonesia, especially in the east. Today Catholicism is one of Indonesia's recognized religions.


Aceh attacks Melaka.  


Portuguese begin building forts on Flores.  



Johore attacks Portuguese Melaka with help from Jepara.

Force from Ternate takes control of Sultanate of Jailolo on Halmahera with Portuguese help.




Hasanuddin breaks away from Demak and founds Sultanate of Banten, then takes Lampung for the new Sultanate.

Aceh sends embassy to the Ottoman sultan in Istanbul.




Leiliato leads a force from Ternate to attack the Portuguese at Hitu.

Portuguese build a fortress on Bacan.

Ki Ageng Pemanahan receives Mataram district from Joko Tinggir, ruling at Pajang.

Smallpox epidemic at Ternate.




Portuguese missionaries land at Timor.

Khairun becomes Sultan of Ternate.

Sultan Khairun was friendly to St. Francis Xavier, and was known to be a skillful politician who manipulated the Portuguese into doing what he wanted while claiming to be a Portuguese ally. However, in the end the Portuguese threw him in prison and tried to poison him when he would not yield lands to them.



Portuguese found mission and trading post at Panarukan, in easternmost Java.

Spanish establish a presence at Manado.




Sultan Prawata of Demak passes away.

Portuguese Dominican mission founded on Solor.




Smallpox epidemic at Ambon.




Aceh sacks Johore.

Kutai on Kalimantan converts to Islam.




Portuguese Dominican mission on Solor builds a stone fortress.



Unsuccessful attack by Aceh on Portuguese Melaka.  


Portuguese build wooden fortress on Ambon island.  



Aceh attacks Johore again, but fails.

Sultan Khairun of Ternate signs a treaty of friendship with the Portuguese, but is found poisoned the next day. Portuguese agents are suspected. Babullah becomes Sultan (until 1583), and vows to drive the Portuguese out of their fortress.

Maulana Yusup becomes Sultan of Banten.



Alaudin Riayet Shah dies, disorder in Aceh until 1607.  



Jepara leads unsuccessful attack on Melaka.




Sultan Babullah expels the Portuguese from Ternate. Portuguese build a fort on Tidore instead.

The Portuguese in Ternate were under siege in their fortress for five years, and never received help from Melaka or Goa in India.



Portuguese build fort at the present site of the city of Ambon.




Ki Ageng Pemanahan founds Kota Gede (near today's Yogya).

Sunan Kalijogo as portrayed in an old engraving.



Banten takes the remaining part of Pajajaran, converts it to Islam.

November Sir Francis Drake of England, after raiding Spanish ships and ports in America, arrives at Ternate. Sultan Babullah, who also hated the Spanish, pledges friendship to England.

A Portuguese map from the late 1500s showing the Indies in rough outlines. This information was kept secret by the Spanish and Portuguese until Dutch and English ships started to make trips to the Indies just before 1600.

Some of the subjects of the Pajajaran kingdom who did not convert to Islam left for the high mountains, and became the Badui people of West Java today.



Maulana Muhammad becomes Sultan of Banten.

Portugal falls under Spanish crown; Portuguese colonial enterprises are disregarded.

Drake visits Sulawesi and Java, on the way back to England.

Ternate takes control of Butung.

In the 1500s, the Netherlands were an important business center for Europe, where products from Russia, Scandinavia, Africa, Asia and America were bought and sold. The Netherlands during that time was ruled by Spain. By 1581, the Netherlands had rebelled against the King of Spain and had begun to govern themselves. But since Spain now had control of the Portuguese colonies, the Spanish could prevent Dutch businessmen from easy access to spices from the Indies. This was one reason that Dutch ships began to make their own voyages direct to the Indies in the 1590s.



About this time, Kyai Ageng Pemanahan takes over Mataram district (which had been promised to him by Joko Tingkir, who delayed until Sunan Kalijogo of the Nine Walis pressed him), changes name to Kyai Gedhe Mataram.




Sutawijaya succeeds his father Kyai Gedhe Mataram as local ruler of Mataram, ruling from Kota Gede.




Sultan of Aceh sends a letter to Elizabeth I of England.

Portuguese ship sent to build a fort and mission on Bali is wrecked just offshore.




Sutawijaya defeats Pajang and Joko Tingkir dies; lineage passes definitely to Sutawijaya. Mount Merapi erupts.

Portuguese in Melaka attack Johore.

Portuguese sign a truce with the Sultan of Aceh.

Sir Thomas Cavendish of England visits Java.



Sutawijaya changes name to Senopati; takes Pajang and Demak.

Senopati in a traditional portrait.

From Senopati one can easily trace the lineage of today's Sultan of Yogya and Susuhunan of Surakarta. Traditionally, the line is traced back all the way to the kings of Majapahit.

After this point, the power in central Java was definitely in the Mataram district, around today's Yogyakarta and Surakarta, rather than around Demak.


Original village of Medan founded.  



Senopati takes Madiun, then Kediri.

Sir James Lancaster of England reaches Aceh and Penang, but his mission is a failure.

Ternate attacks Portuguese in Ambon.



Ternate lays siege to the Portuguese in Ambon again.  



April 2 Dutch expedition under De Houtman leaves for Indies.

Suriansyah makes Banjar on Kalimantan a Sultanate (later Banjarmasin).

Portuguese build fort at Ende, Flores.

Many Dutch sailors had worked on Spanish and Portuguese ships. When De Houtman's Dutch expedition set sail, there were experienced crewmen available to guide them to the Indies.



June 5 De Houtman expedition reaches Sumatra.

June 23 De Houtman expedition reaches Banten. The initial reception is friendly, but after some rough behavior by the Dutch, the Sultan of Banten, along with the Portuguese stationed in Banten, shell the Dutch ships.

The De Houtman expedition continues along north coast of Java. A ship is lost to pirates. More bad behavior leads to misunderstandings and violence on Madura: a prince of Madura is killed, several Dutch sailors are arrested and taken prisoner, De Houtman has to ransom them for release.

Abul Mufakir becomes Sultan of Banten.

Three Chinese merchants at Banten, late 1500s.



Some members of De Houtman expedition settle on Bali and refuse to leave.

A Portuguese fleet under Lourenzo de Brito decides, contrary to instructions, to seek retribution from the Sultan of Banten for doing business with Dutch traders. The fleet is defeated by Banten and forced to retreat.

Remnants of the De Houtman expedition (89 of an original 248 sailors) return to Holland with spices.

Senopati attacks Banten, but is driven back.

Title page from the published account of the de Houtman expedition. The Spanish and Portuguese had maintained secrecy about the results of their explorations. The Dutch broke their monopoly on information.



22 Dutch ships in five expeditions set out for the east. The Netherlands States-General suggests that competing companies should merge. De Houtman's second expedition includes John Davis, an English spy. Van Noort sets off to sail around the southern tip of America to the Indies.

Senopati attacks the western territories of Surabaya.

The De Houtman voyage was actually not profitable, (partly due to de Houtman's own poor judgment and general recklessness) but the businessmen of the Netherlands could see the future potential in the spice trade, and dozens of new voyages were planned to follow its path. This period of is sometimes called the "wilde vaart".



Dutch expedition under Van Neck reaches Maluku, begins successful trading on Banda, Ambon and Ternate.

June De Houtman is killed in conflict with Sultan of Aceh.

Dutch churches begin calls for missionary work in the Indies.




Van Noort expedition attacks Spanish at Guam.

Portuguese establish trading post at Jepara.

Raja of Minangkabau converts to Islam.

September Dutch Admiral Van den Haghen makes an alliance with the Hitu against the Portuguese in Ambon.

December 31 Elizabeth I of England charters East India Company.




Senopati succeeded by Krapyak in Mataram.

Portuguese send a fleet from Goa, India, to drive the Dutch from the Indies.

English set up fort at Banda.

Aceh sends two ambassadors to Europe to observe and report on the situation to the Sultan.

December 25-27 Five Dutch ships defeat the Portuguese fleet of 30 ships in battle in Banten harbor.



March 20 Dutch companies combine to form Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC); led by Heeren XVII representing different regions of the Netherlands; States-General gives VOC power to raise armies, build forts, negotiate treaties and wage war in Asia.

VOC begins sending large, well-armed ships to the Indies (38 in the first three years).

VOC establishes post at Gresik.

Sir James Lancaster leads an (English) East India Company expedition, reaches Aceh, and builds a trading post at Banten.

The Dutch East India Company was given most of the powers of a sovereign state, partly because communication between the Netherlands and Asia was so slow that colonial activities simply could not be directed from Amsterdam.

(Until 1800 in this time-line, Dutch activities are marked with a VOC for East India Company.)



Official VOC trading post founded at Banten.




English East India Company expedition under Sir Henry Middleton visits Ternate, Tidore, Ambon, and Banda.




Portuguese at Ambon surrender to ships under VOC.

King of Gowa converts to Islam, but other kings of the area refuse invitation to convert. Gowa attacks its neighbors and converts them to Islam.

VOC sends expeditions to Banda, Irian Jaya, northern Australia.

The chief minister to the King of Gowa in these days was named Matoaya. Besides presiding over the conversion of Gowa and Makassar to Islam, he encouraged the establishment of Makassar as a free port opposed to Portuguese or Dutch control, and started a local industry to manufacture firearms, to maintain Gowa's strength against outside forces.



Spanish take Ternate and Tidore.

VOC makes unsuccessful attack on Portuguese Melaka.

VOC begins trading at Banjarmasin.




Iskandar Muda is Sultan of Aceh.

May Sultan of Ternate appeals to the VOC for help against the Spanish.

Aceh under Iskandar Muda and his successor, Iskandar Thani, was a center of Islamic scholarship and debate.



Gowa begins three years of war against the neighboring Kingdom of Bone.




Portuguese fortress on Bacan falls to VOC.



Krapyak of Mataram starts period of heavy attacks on Surabaya.

Post of Governor-General is created for VOC in Asia, advised by Raad van Indie (Council of the Indies).




English begin setting up many posts in the Indies, including at Makassar, Jepara, Aceh and Jambi.

Dutch set up post at Jayakerta.

Gowa conquers Bone, converts it to Islam.




April 18 Dutch take Solor from Portuguese. Portuguese Dominicans move headquarters to Larantuka, Flores.

Iskandar Muda of Aceh defeats Johore, burns down the city, carries away the Sultan of Johore and VOC representatives.

Mataram forces burn down Gresik; Krapyak asks VOC in Maluku for help against Surabaya.

VOC sets up post at Jepara.

VOC sets up first post on Timor.

Krapyak succeeded by Sultan Agung.



Johore throws out Aceh forces, creates alliance Palembang, Jambi, and other Sultanates against Aceh

Aceh wins naval battle against Portuguese at Bintan, continues on to attack Melaka.

Agung attacks Surabayan territories.

VOC sends ambassador to Agung.

Bandung founded.

Sultan Agung in a traditional portrait.
Agung was the greatest ruler of Mataram. At one point, all of Java except for Banten and Batavia was under his rule.


VOC closes post at Gowa, hostilities drag on for years.

First Dutch Reformed church in the east founded at Ambon.

English build warehouse at Jayakerta.

Dutch abandon Solor after just two years.

Protestantism (Kristen), one of Indonesia's five religions.

The Dutch introduced the fifth of Indonesia's recognized religions: Protestant Christianity. Beside the missionary work on Java, there were soon many "orang Kristen" around Manado on Sulawesi, in Ambon, and around Kupang on Timor and nearby Roti.

The VOC, being mostly a business, had very little interest in spreading religion. However, it banned to practice of Catholicism wherever it could.


VOC military expedition against Banda.  



Aceh takes Pahang.

Agung defeats Surabaya at Pasuruan, defeats Surabayan expedition to his rear; Pajang rebels, Agung destroys Pajang and moves inhabitants to Mataram.

Gowa extends control over Sumbawa.

"Monopolies" and "smuggling" in these days were sometimes defined by contracts and treaties, but at other times a "monopoly" was simply declared unilaterally. Some of the "smuggling" that occurred would just be called "competition" today.

In 1615-1616, the Schouten expedition became the first to sail around Cape Horn at the the southern tip of South America, then made the first visit by Europeans to many south Pacific islands. By the time they arrived in Batavia (Jakarta), Coen had them jailed for violating the V.O.C.'s monopoly, and confiscated their ships.

(Years later, in 1722, the Dutch explorer Roggeveen would run into the same trouble after discovering Easter Island.)



Jan Pieterzoon Coen becomes Governor-General of VOC.

English merchants attack Chinese ships in Banten in a dispute over the price of pepper. Coen begins secretly fortifying the VOC warehouses at Jayakerta to the east.

December Sultan of Banten encourages English to drive Dutch out of Jayakerta. Coen leaves for Maluku to muster ships and soldiers.

Agung bans the sale of rice to the VOC. Agung's governor of Jepara attacks the VOC post there; Dutch burn down much of Jepara in retaliation.

Dutch reoccupy Solor.




January English force Dutch surrender at Jayakerta, but Banten forces take over from the English in a surprise move. The English and the Pangeran of Jayakerta retreat.

March 12 Dutch rename post at Jayakerta to Batavia (today's Jakarta).

May Coen passes through Jepara, and burns down the city again, including the English trading post.

May 28 Coen arrives at Jayakerta, and burns down the original town of Jayakerta, leaving only the Dutch post of Batavia remaining to become VOC headquarters.

Agung takes Tuban from Surabaya, destroying the city.

August VOC begins building city at Batavia.

Agung was not pleased with the Dutch taking Jayakerta, since he had intended to take it himself. Likewise, the Sultan of Banten did not want the English to take it, for the same reason.



VOC under Coen almost exterminates population of Banda to prevent "smuggling". Survivors settle on small islands near Seram.

Aceh takes Kedah.

Gowa extends influence over Sumbawa.

Rahmatullah becomes Sultan of Banjar on Kalimantan.

Jan Pieterszoon Coen
The most aggressive Governor-General of the V.O.C.

One of Coen's goals was to make the VOC strong enough on its own that it did not have to depend on the goodwill of neighboring rulers. He intended to do this by changing the VOC from a trade empire to an empire that ruled actual territories, then settling those territories with colonists from the Netherlands. Military strength was important, both for maintaining a position of power among the local kings and sultans, and for keeping the Spanish, Portuguese and English away.

For Coen, the VOC was more than a business, but for neighboring rulers, such as Sultan Agung, and even for government officials in China, the VOC were mere merchants, and they refused to give VOC officials the same standing in protocol that they gave the representatives of other kings or sultans.



British found trading post at Ambon.




Mataram navy defeats Sukadana (an ally of Surabaya in West Kalimantan), and destroy the city.

Agung and VOC make overtures to each other.




VOC agents in Ambon arrest, torture and execute English agents on charges of conspiracy.

Aceh sacks Johore.

Carstenz expedition for VOC explores southern coast of Irian Jaya.

Coen returns to the Netherlands. Carpentier is new Governor-General of the VOC.

VOC takes nominal claim to Aru Islands.



Aceh takes Nias.

Sultan Agung conquers Madura, and takes 40,000 prisoners. Raden Praseno, a grandson of Pratanu, is named Pangeran Cakraningrat I of Madura by Agung.




Agung dams Brantas River to cut off water supply from Surabaya, which finally surrenders.

Cirebon is an ally of Agung.

Epidemics and ruin of war spread through Java.

Abul Fath becomes Sultan of Banten.

In 1625 the first "hongi" raids took place in Maluku. These were attacks, usually by local allies of the VOC, against anyone who was growing cloves without authorization of the VOC.

By this time, the VOC was probably the largest business enterprise anywhere in the world, with tens of thousands of employees. The territories controlled by the VOC were not only in Indonesia: in the mid-1600s, they also included Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and the Cape area in what is now South Africa. The VOC also had "factories", warehouses and offices in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Yemen, and Canton in China.



Coen returns from the Netherlands to serve as Governor-General of the V.O.C. again.

December 25 Soldiers from Banten infiltrate the fortress of Batavia, kill some guards, and escape, but do little damage.

Around this time, Sultan Agung forced the removal of the entire population of many villages in the Priangan (around today's Bandung) for disobedience. Around 1200 men were sent back to Mataram from these villages, and executed.



Agung sends army against VOC in Batavia; dams Ciliwung River in attempt to deny fresh water to the VOC. He fails to oust the Dutch, who prevent his army from receiving supplies by sea. Commanders of the Mataram army are executed for failure.

Last of the English leave Banda.




Agung attacks Batavia again. He is defeated, although Coen dies during the siege.

Banten, fearing Agung now more than the VOC, pleads for peace with the VOC.

Iskandar Muda sends navy of Aceh against Portuguese Melaka, but the Aceh navy is destroyed.

September 20 Coen passes away.

Introduction of sugar cultivation in Banten.




Dutch abandon Solor, which is retaken by the Portuguese.




Agung suppresses rebellion at Sumedang.




Agung raids east Java; the Hindu kingdom of Balambangan asks for VOC help and is refused. Balambangan then asks the King of Gelgel in Bali for help.

War between VOC and Banten.

Aceh takes the Indrapura area of Minangkabau.



Dutch arrest Kakiali, leader of Hitu in Maluku, on charges of smuggling. This was the "mercantilist" age of trade empires. There were many powers that wanted to create trade empires: the Dutch through the VOC, the English, Banten, and Gowa were among them. There was no such thing as "free trade" under these empires. The VOC especially wanted total control of trade, and any selling to anyone outside the VOC was considered "smuggling".



Agung tries to take Balambangan, but is defeated by Balinese forces.

VOC signs treaty with Kutai on Kalimantan.



Iskandar Thani becomes Sultan of Aceh; supports Islamic learning.

Agung begins conquest of easternmost Java.

Agung suppresses a revolt in Giri.

Agung, realizing that he cannot defeat Dutch, makes overtures towards VOC.

Van Diemen becomes Governor-General of VOC.

Portuguese abandon posts on Solor after six years.

VOC bans all private correspondence (until 1701).




VOC attacks Ternate.

VOC releases Kakiali, who pledges friendship to VOC but makes anti-Dutch alliance between Hitu, Ternate, and Gowa.

Local Muslims overcome Portuguese fortress at Ende on Flores.

Agung gives permission for Portuguese and Catholic refugees from Batavia to settle around Jepara.

Agung finally takes Balambangan in easternmost Java. The area is devastated by warfare.

Palembang and Banjarmasin send ambassadors to make homage to Agung.

Ar-Raniri arrives in Aceh from Gujarat in India.

Around this time the VOC started pushing the Portuguese out of many of their posts in Nusa Tenggara.

Ar-Raniri was a great writer and scholar in Aceh's golden age. Among other things, he wrote "Garden of Kings", a book about Islam and the scientific knowledge of the day. However, he was also a controversial figure in Aceh, and he returned to India in 1644.



Chief minister Matoaya of Gowa is succeeded by his son Pattingalloang.

Unlike his father, Pattingalloang did not maintain good relations with the Bugis. The bad feeling would eventually lead some Bugis to side with the VOC against Gowa and Makassar.



Bima on Sumbawa converts to Islam and becomes a Sultanate.

Portugal regains independent crown from Spain.

Portuguese abandon trading post at Jepara.

Cirebon becomes a dependency of Mataram




Taj ul-Alam becomes Sultana of Aceh, starts period of female rulers; Johore and Aceh settle differences.

January 14 VOC takes Melaka from Portuguese, with help from the Sultan of Johore.

Sultan of Johore opens ports in Riau to all traders.

Kakiali and Hitu attack VOC on Ambon.

The VOC takeover of Melaka was the real end of Portuguese importance in the region. But after losing Melaka, some Portuguese started trading with Gowa on Sulawesi.

After Taj ul-Alam became ruler of Aceh, the centralized power in Aceh lessened, regional ruler gained more power, and Aceh's tributaries began to show their independence.

With the English and Portuguese almost gone, and Batavia and Ambon relatively secure from neighboring rulers, this was the most profitable time for the VOC.



VOC gets monopoly on trade with Palembang by treaty.

Hidayatullah becomes Sultan of Banjar on Kalimantan.

Tasman explores coasts of Irian Jaya for VOC on voyage back from New Zealand.

"Statutes of Batavia", based on Roman law, are introduced as a legal code for VOC territories.



VOC has Kakiali murdered, continue drive to take Hitu.  



Agung begins building royal tombs at Imogiri, (near today's Yogya).

Mandarsyah becomes Sultan of Ternate with VOC help.

VOC established outpost at Perak.




Sultan Agung dies, and is succeeded by Susuhunan Amangkurat I. Mataram controls all Java, more or less, except Banten and Batavia. Relations between Amangkurat I and the VOC are good in the beginning.

VOC finally takes Hitu.

Dutch arrive again on Solor, abandoned by the Portuguese ten years earlier.

September 24 Cooperation treaty between VOC and Mataram, involving promises of mutual assistance against enemies and extradition of runaway debtors, among other things. Ships of Mataram may trade at any VOC port except Ambon, Ternate or Banda, but must apply for a pass at Batavia if they are sailing for Melaka or points beyond.

Portuguese begin building a settlement at the present site of Kupang on western Timor.

VOC builds a trading post in the Tanimbar Islands.




Amangkurat I moves court to Plered near Karta.

Mataram kingdom loses Balambangan in easternmost Java to Balinese forces.




Cakraningrat II takes power in Madura, under Mataram.




VOC intervenes in uprising against Sultan Mandarsyah of Ternate, sparking civil war.

Amangkurat I orders Cirebon to attack Banten.

Musta'in Billah becomes Sultan of Banjar on Kalimantan.



VOC reopens post at Jepara; Amangkurat I begins interfering in coastal trade.

Sultan Ageng begins rule at Banten (not to be confused with Sultan Agung of Mataram).

VOC takes Kupang on western Timor; Portuguese move to Lifau, in what is now East Timor.

VOC outpost at Perak is destroyed.




VOC takes Sultan Mandarsyah of Ternate to Batavia, makes him sign agreement not to grow cloves, starts military moves against opposing faction in Ternate.

Amangkurat I bans the export of rice or timber.

Hongi raids destroy clove cultivation on Buru.

Tensions grow between the VOC and Gowa.



Amangkurat I orders that no boats of any kind shall set sail from his ports.  



VOC deports population of Hoamoal near Ternate to Ambon.




Amangkurat I attacks Banten again.

VOC forces population of Buru to relocate to Kaleji Bay.




VOC sets up post at Manado.

War between VOC and Palembang.




VOC forces burn down Palembang, and reestablish the VOC post.

Amangkurat I has several family members murdered, including the mother of the future Amangkurat II.

July 10 Treaty between VOC and Banten: prisoners and runaway slaves are to be exchanged; VOC receives a presence at Banten free from rent or taxes; boundary between Banten and VOC territory is set.

VOC builds fort in the Aru Islands, but soon abandons it.

Bugis fighters from a 1650s engraving.



VOC attacks Gowa, destroys Portuguese ships in harbor, and forces peace treaty on Sultan Hasanuddin of Gowa.

Arung Palakka of Bone rebels against Gowa; retreats with supporters to Butung.

Buleleng begins drive to become power on Bali; King of Klungkung remains as "Dewa Agung" or chief king.

Amangkurat I closes ports again; VOC leaves Jepara.

Formerly Bali had answered to the King at Gelgel. Around this time, the kingdom split into nine states:




Court rebellion against Amangkurat I.

Banten takes diamond-bearing area of Landak on Kalimantan.

Amangkurat I had a reputation for being cruel and unpredictable. Besides his disastrous interference in the economy, at one time he had many of the Islamic scholars in Mataram killed, then took their former judicial powers for himself, turning himself into an absolute ruler.



Portuguese headquarters in the east is moved from Larantuka, Flores to Lifau (today Oecussi or Pantemakassar) in what is now East Timor.

VOC signs treaty with chiefs on Roti.




Spanish abandon post at Tidore.

VOC allows Arung Palakka and followers to settle at Batavia.

Banten begins direct trade with Manila.

July 6 Treaty of Painan: coastal areas of Minangkabau, including Padang, become a protectorate of the VOC, which guarantees them security against raids from Aceh.

By the end of the 1660s, Banten was trading directly with China, Japan, Thailand, India and Arabia, using its own ships to compete with English, French, Danish and VOC traders. Sultan Ageng of Banten was a strong opponent of the VOC monopoly who insisted on promoting trade with other European, Arab and Asian traders as he pleased.



VOC sends out a fleet under Admiral Cornelis Speelman, with Bugis soldiers under Arung Palakka and Ambonese soldiers under "Captain Jonker", to settle issues in Gowa and Maluku.

Cornelis Speelman, Admiral and later Governor-General. Speelman left the Netherlands as a teenager and spent the rest of his life in the Indies, never returning.



VOC expedition under Speelman lands at Butung, and clears the island of Gowa forces.

Speelman expedition forces the Sultan of Tidore (now free of Spanish presence) to submit to the VOC. A peace treaty is signed between Ternate and Tidore, now both under VOC control.

The future Amangkurat II begins seeking VOC help against his father.

English give up claims to Banda in exchange for Manhattan Island in America.

Sultan Hasanuddin of Gowa is remembered for fighting bravely against the VOC, but he eventually had to sign a treaty giving up almost all his territories to the Dutch.



Arung Palakka returns to Bone, sparking a popular revolt against the Sultan of Gowa.

Speelman expedition finally defeats Gowa.

November 18 Treaty of Bungaya: Gowa submits to VOC control, and Sultan Hasanuddin has no influence outside the general area of the city of Makassar.

VOC extends claims to Sumbawa and Flores after the defeat of Gowa.

Bugis leaving the confusion on Sulawesi found Samarinda on Kalimantan.

VOC builds a fort at Menggala in Lampung.

By this time, the Portuguese in Makassar and Gowa had fled to Flores, or even to Macao or Thailand.



Sultan Hasanuddin of Gowa passes away; continuing troubles against the VOC in Gowa finally end.

VOC traders at Banjarmasin are massacred.

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